Some ecological philosophies
Although each ecologist approach ecological problems uniquely, most seem to cluster toward different philosophies.
Eco-traditionalism. Humans should return to the way of life of their ancestors, which allowed them to live in harmony with nature. In this perspective, we must renounce industrialization, technologies, the consumer society, etc. The solutions to ecological problems lie in history. See Jean-Martin Fortier, Roméo Bouchard, Paul Ariès, Vandana Shiva, Piotr Kropotkine, the Peasant union (Union paysanne).
Eco-socialism. It is a movement close to eco-traditionalism, but anti-capitalist. “We cannot grow infinitely in a world of finite dimensions”, as often heared in eco-socialist circles. These limits on growth would lead to the collapse of nature, and at the same time humans. This movement suggests putting an end to economic growth strategies and turning to human scale solutions. For populationists among eco-socialists, this human scale also requires reducing human population. The solutions to ecological problems are political. See Laure Waridel, Naomi Klein, E.F. Schumacher, Thanos, Équiterre.
Eco-modernism. Eco-modernists believe in the benefits of industrialization and new technologies, which reduce the ecological impacts per person. The reduction in total impacts will be favored by the stabilization of human population, a phenomenon linked to the improvement of life quality provided by industrialization. Eco-modernists defend nuclear energy and modern agriculture to intensify human activity and leave more space for nature. Ecological problems have technological solutions. See Steven Pinker, Mark Lynas, Pamela Ronald, Ironman, Breakthrough Institute.
Green capitalism. Nature is an economic wealth, and to damage it is a debt for future generations. The free market, guided by adequate economic policies, will ensure that consumption will naturally orient towards sustainable solutions. Green solutions will emerge from economic incentives. See Paul Hawken, Al Gore, Bjorn Lomborg, Human Progress, PERC.