Water Treatment Fundamentals
Increasing the quality water involves disinfection plus purification of untreated surface and ground water.
Community Level. A public/private water rehab facility aims to generate water safe to consume and pleasant to taste, while ensuring there exists enough water to provide the demands of the community.
Raw, untreated water comes from an underground aquifer (via wells) or surface ponds like a river or lake. It flows or perhaps is pumped to a rehab facility. The second it is there, the river is treated beforehand to remove debris – like leaves and silt. Then it undergoes a series of treatment processes, that include disinfection and filtration using chemicals or physical processes, eliminating microorganisms that induce diseases. After the treatment solutions are completed, water flows out through a system of pumps and pipes, that is known as the distribution system.
There's a slight difference water course of treatment at various places, depending on the technology with the plant and water needed to be processed, however the fundamental principles are generally exactly the same.
Coagulation / Flocculation. In the coagulation state, liquid aluminium sulfate or alum, at times polymer, lies in untreated/raw water. The amalgamation causes tiny dirt particles in water to be fastened together or coagulated. Then, collections of dirt particles join together to create bigger, heavier particles – known as flocs – that happen to be easily removed through filtration/settling.
Sedimentation. When water and floc particles glance at the course of treatment, they flow into sedimentation basins where water moves slowly, letting heavy floc particles dip to the bottom. Floc collected about the lowermost part of the basin is known as sludge. It goes through pipes to arrive at the drying lagoons. The sedimentation state just isn't contained in Direct Filtration and thus, the floc is removed through filtration.
Filtration. Water goes thru a filter intended to remove water particles. The filters contain layers of gravel and sand, and in other cases, crushed anthracite. Filtration gathers the suspended water impurities and improves the efficacy of disinfection. The filters are cleaned regularly by means of backwashing.
Disinfection. Before water retreats into the distribution system, it can be disinfected to make sure that bacteria that produces diseases, parasites and viruses is eliminated. Chlorine is employed since it a very effective in disinfecting and residual concentration to shield from possible biological contamination seen in the machine of water distribution.
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